For many people – Of course, gardeners are not included in this group – the earth is only gray, uninteresting mass, which is noticed only then, when he gets his shoes dirty. Meanwhile, the fragile fragrant soil in our gardens is fascinating, bustling environment. Imagine a parent scale, and above it a layer composed of its weathered fragments or deposited by water or glaciers. The layer above it is even more weathered, and the mineral particles are finer. It is this layer that penetrates the roots of the plant, and when they die, their remains decay. This process involves numerous microorganisms inhabiting this zone, and its effect is caries, that is, humus. This wonderful mixture of inorganic and organic substances, constituting the top layer of earth, this is the soil.
Most of us have heard of the cultivable soil and native soil. If we dig a hole, on its side walls we can see two different layers. The lower layer is the native soil, which is usually brighter and more concise. Above it is the top layer containing much more organic matter - this is the arable layer. When we are talking about the earth, that she is "good", it usually means, that it has a thick one, fertile top layer, which is great for growing plants. Generalizing, you can say, that half the volume of the top layer consists of voids, that is, the seasons. The conditions for plant development are good, when half of these pores are filled with water, and half air, if 90% the solid particles are minerals, a 10% organic, that is caries.
The purpose of agrotechnical treatments is to create a deep one, fertile soil layer, which will provide optimal conditions for the development of cultivated plants. Regardless of, what type of soil is in our garden, we can change its structure and composition, digging through her, improving its permeability or enriching it with organic material or mineral fertilizers. Often, we also need to protect the soil from erosion: we care, to be covered with vegetation, mulch or green fertilizer. Thanks to this, the rain will not wash away valuable ingredients from it.