Types of soil:
Sandy soils – Sandy soils are granular, their particles do not stick together, which means, that they dry quickly and easily rinse the nutrients out of them. However, sandy soils do not have only disadvantages. They heat up quickly in spring, loosening or digging them up requires no effort. Treatments improving the quality of sandy soil will primarily consist of intensive organic fertilization. There are quite a few plants, which prefer loose fit, well-drained soils, including many species native to the Mediterranean. Lavender, thyme or rosemary thrive on sandy soils much better than on heavy clay soils. Plants with lower frost resistance will be much easier to survive the winter in more dry sandy soils than in heavy soils.
Sandy soils – growing tips:
• A good way to keep water in sandy soils is to cover them with mulch in the form of coarse gravel or stone grit. We start by digging the bed and feeding it with organic fertilizer. We select plants resistant to drought for the flowerbed. Water them generously and cover them with a thick layer of mulch 8-10 cm.
Sandy-clay soils – This type of soil is most in demand. Sandy clay soils have a good water storage capacity, moderate permeability, they are moderately airy and warm up well. We use intensive organic fertilization on sandy soils, to give them properties similar to sandy loam soils. We are trying to achieve a similar effect, adding sharp gravel to clay soils, improving their porosity, and therefore also permeability.
Clay soils – It is a heavy soil, with a fine-grained structure. It consists of small ones, densely packed particles, with a high proportion of floatable parts. Poor porosity makes, that this soil is not very permeable to water and air. When wet, it becomes very sticky, and on sunny days it forms a hard shell on the surface. These clay soil properties are responsible for its difficult cultivation. On the other hand, the soil is fertile. If we improve their structure, we'll see, that many plants, e.g.. Roses, prefers them to poor sandy soils. A proven method of improving the properties of clay soils is sowing plants for green manure. Blue lupine gives an excellent effect, the roots of which loosen the soil during growth. As soon as it starts to bloom, cut it down and dig it with the soil.
Clay soils – growing tips:
• If we have to move on wet clay soil, we better put a board on it, especially when working on the edge of the lawn.
• Some plants in the vegetable garden, e.g.. Garlic, it is better to grow on radlins. The soil in radlins is much more permeable. In addition, the roots of the plants are therefore higher, over the coolest (in winter and early spring) and the wettest layer of soil.
• To dry wet heavy clay soil a year before the start of cultivation, it is worth covering it with foil stretched on arched bars. In turn, the foil spread over the planned bed will protect the soil from rain and warm it, while ensuring air access.
• Soil drainage is easier, when the discount does not exceed 1,2 m and is located slightly above the ground level.