Construction of stairs on the slope.
To calculate, how many degrees do we need, we measure the difference in ground levels, on which we intend to build stairs. We drive a stake vertically at the base of the slope, and then we put the end of the wooden batten to it, the other is leaning against the slope surface. We check with a spirit level, the staff is in a horizontal position, and mark its location on the stake. The height of the stake in relation to the marked place gives us the value of the level difference, which we then divide by 15 cm (typical step height), getting the number of steps needed. If the resulting number of degrees is not an integer, we can lower the height of the first step a bit.
The typical width of the step is 45 cm. Multiplying it by the number of degrees, we will get the length of the entire run. We need to pour the foundations under the steps, which should be about at least 10 cm wider than the steps themselves.
How to make a staircase in the garden?
1. Once we have calculated the appropriate length of the flight of stairs, we mark it out with stakes and string.
2. We remove the top layer of earth, and tamp the bottom of the trench with a garden roller or a heavy hammer. If the number of steps and their size are large, it is worth renting a compactor. Next to the excavation, we drive wooden stakes, their number depends on the size of the stairs.
3. The stakes should protrude slightly above the ground, setting the level, to which we lay the concrete foundation. Check the position of the stakes with a spirit level. The steps should be level across their width, dropping slightly towards the riser.
4. We make the foundation from a concrete mix in proportion 1:6 (one part of cement to six parts of gravel) in height, which is marked by the side stakes. We compact concrete, not aligning its surface, thanks to which it will bind better with the layer of bricks, stones or other material used to make the stairs.
5. We arrange the first riser consisting of two layers of bricks or stone elements. We check with a spirit level, whether the layers are arranged horizontally. If the stairs will be made of concrete or stone slabs, let's take into account, that we should eject the plates 2-3 cm beyond the plane of the riser (chiaroscuro will emphasize the horizontal line of the step).
6. When the mortar has hardened, Place the rubble behind the tread and compact it firmly, at the end, possibly covering with a layer of concrete. This layer must be flush with the upper surface of the riser stones.
7. When the concrete has hardened, we proceed to laying the boards. The mortar is applied to the edges of the board or in spots: in the corners and in the middle. By stacking the plates, we remember to keep an appropriate inheritance, which should be at least 1 %. We keep the same decline at all grades. For steps with a width 45 cm it is approx 0,5 cm. We form the fall, by hitting the board gently with a rubber or ordinary hammer through the board.
8. We arrange the next riser ... and another board.
9. Cover the freshly laid stairs with foil, protecting them from rain. During hot days, we cover our structure with damp mats. If the stairs are made of bricks, fill the space between the bricks with mortar, in which three parts sand and three parts gravel are used for one part of the cement. It is worth remembering these values – if we will fill in the cavities in the future, we will get the same grout color. Remove the excess mortar from the boards with a damp sponge, and smooth the joints with a trowel soaked in water.